118 76 blood pressure..High blood pressure is a common disease in which blood flows through the blood vessels (arteries) at a higher than normal pressure. Measuring blood pressure Blood pressure is the force exerted by the blood against the walls of the arteries as the heart pumps blood.
118 76 blood pressure
High blood pressure, also known as hypertension, occurs when this force is very high. Health care providers check blood pressure readings in the same way for children, teens, and adults. They use a meter, a stethoscope or an electronic sensor and a bracelet for blood pressure. With this equipment, they measure: • Systolic pressure: blood pressure when the heart beats while pumping blood
Diastolic pressure: blood pressure when the heart is at rest between beats Health care providers write the number the systolic pressure above the number of the diastolic pressure when giving the results of the arterial pressure. For example: 118/76 mmHg Read “118 over 76” millimeters of mercury Normal blood pressure In adults, normal blood pressure is defined as a systolic pressure below 120 mmHg and a diastolic pressure below 80 mmHg. It is normal for blood pressure to change when you sleep, wake up, or are excited or nervous.
When it is active, it is usual for blood pressure to increase. However, once you stop activity, your blood pressure returns to its normal range. In general, blood pressure increases with age and body size. Newborn babies often have very low blood pressure values that are considered normal for them.
Older adolescents, on the other hand, have values similar to those of adults. Abnormal blood pressure Having blood pressure above 120/80 mmHg is considered an abnormal increase in blood pressure. The following table indicates the stages or levels of severity of high blood pressure.
The ranges presented in the table are guidelines for blood pressure in adults who do not have any serious illness in the short term. People with diabetes or chronic kidney disease should keep their blood pressure below 130/80 mmHg.
Although the blood pressure increases seen in prehypertension are lower than those used to diagnose high blood pressure, prehypertension can turn into high blood pressure and should be given a lot of attention. Over time, high blood pressure weakens and damages blood vessels, which can cause complications. Types of high blood pressure There are two main types of high blood pressure: primary and secondary.
Primary high blood pressure Primary or essential high blood pressure is the most common type of high blood pressure. This type of high blood pressure tends to occur over the years as the person ages. Secondary High Blood Pressure Secondary high blood pressure is caused by another medical illness or disorder or the use of certain medications.
This type usually resolves after the cause is treated or eliminated. Complications of high blood pressure When blood pressure stays high for a long time, it can cause damage to the body and cause complications. Some common complications and their signs and symptoms include: •
Aneurysms: These are abnormal bumps in the wall of an artery. Aneurysms develop and grow for years without causing signs or symptoms until they break, grow enough to press nearby structures, or block blood flow. The signs and symptoms that occur depend on the location of the aneurysm. •
Chronic kidney disease: occurs when the blood vessels of the kidneys narrow. This can cause kidney failure. • Cognitive changes: Research shows that over time high blood pressure can cause cognitive changes. Signs and symptoms include loss of memory, difficulty finding words and lack of concentration during conversations. •
Eye injuries: These occur when the blood vessels of the eyes burst or bleed. Signs and symptoms include changes in vision or blindness. • Heart attack: It happens when the flow of oxygen-rich blood to a section of the heart muscle is suddenly blocked and the heart stops receiving oxygen. The most common warning symptoms of a heart attack are pain or discomfort in the chest, discomfort in the upper body and shortness of breath. •
Heart failure: It is when the heart can not pump enough blood to meet the needs of the body. Common signs and symptoms of heart failure include shortness of breath or difficulty breathing; feeling of tiredness and swelling in the ankles, l
Some signs or findings can make us suspect certain syndromes: Moon face, obesity, hirsutism: S. de Cushing. Goblin face, murmur in aortic focus and hypercalcemia, mental retardation: S. de Williams. Woman with winged neck, short stature, nipples s cubitus valgus, etc.: Turner’s. Heart murmur irradiated to the neck and back, more absence of femoral pulses: coarctation of the aorta. Abdominal or lumbar pain: renovascular hypertension. Altered fundus, and / or cardiomegaly, albuminuria: chronic AHT. Crisis of pallor, sweating, weight loss: Pheochromocytoma.
Technique to take PA
The child should be seated, as calm as possible, after 3 to 5 minutes of rest, with the handle attached to the arm (the loose handle can give non-real elevations of the PA), in the right arm and with an appropriate sleeve size of the child’s arm, which must have a width that is placed in the middle third of the arm, encompasses 40% of the circumference thereof, and a length of the bladder of the sleeve that covers 80 to 100% of the circumference of the arm. arm.
There are three pediatric size sleeves, one standard adult, another large adult type, and one to place on the thigh. These last two can be used in adolescents or obese adults. Pediatric cuffs measure:
Newborns 2.5 – 4 cm wide 5-9 cm long
Infant 4 – 6 cm wide 11.5 -18 cm long
Child 7.5 – 9 cm wide 17-19 cm long
The systolic BP corresponds to the beginning of Korotkoff beats and the diastolic to the 5th sound (k5) or to the disappearance of Korotkoff sounds. The auscultatory method is recommended as the most reliable. The stethoscope bell is placed over the brachial artery below the lower edge of the cuff, which should free the axilla and the anterior aspect of the elbow. This is inflated quickly and then slowly deflated. The scale should be reached to zero before re-inflating the cuff, and PA should be taken a minimum of two times.