122/77 blood pressure..Blood pressure is the pressure exerted by the blood on the walls of the arteries. It is usually measured along with vital signs such as pulse rate, etc. It is measured in two parts: systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure.
The systolic pressure is the maximum pressure exerted by the blood in the arteries during the contraction of the left ventricle of the heart. On the other hand, diastolic pressure is the minimum pressure exerted by the blood in the arteries when the heart relaxes between beats.
122/77 blood pressure
Normal Blood Pressure in Women
Ideally, the blood pressure reading should be 120/80 mmHg (millimeters of mercury). The first figure refers to the systolic pressure, while the second figure represents the diastolic pressure. It is measured by a sphygmomanometer.
Blood pressure could be an indicator of the heart’s pumping capacity, so medical help should be sought if blood pressure levels are abnormal. High blood pressure and low blood pressure are medically referred to as hypertension and hypotension, respectively. You can see in the following table the normal range of women’s blood pressure.
Blood Pressure Stage
210/120 Very high
140/90 High Limit
130/85 High / Normal
110/75 Low / normal
90/60 Low limit
50/33 Very Low
Factors Affecting Blood Pressure in Women
Fluctuations in blood pressure levels may be associated with factors such as age, lifestyle, pregnancy, weight, menopause, family history, etc.
Blood pressure increases with age. After age 50, one in two women will be affected by high blood pressure. Here is a range of blood pressure according to age. Keep in mind that the table mentions blood pressure only until a certain age, because with advanced age, many factors come into play.
Blood pressure levels may be affected by the lifestyle we have. The risk of high blood pressure increases with lack of exercise, unhealthy diet, stress, etc. The use of contraceptive pills or the intake of certain substances such as caffeine or nicotine could also affect blood pressure. To maintain a healthy blood pressure, you must maintain a healthy weight. Follow a healthy diet and, not drinking alcohol or smoking, can certainly help.
Blood Pressure in Women
Blood pressure fluctuates frequently during pregnancy. The hormone progesterone, which prepares the uterus for pregnancy, dilates blood vessels, thus reducing blood pressure. On the other hand, as the blood provides all the nutrients and oxygen to the embryo, the heart has to work overtime to pump the blood to the placenta. This can lead to an increase in blood pressure.
Blood pressure checks should be done frequently during pregnancy to prevent preeclampsia, which is a condition characterized by high blood pressure and fluid retention.
Obesity makes you susceptible to high blood pressure. This is due to the deposition of fat in the inner linings of the arteries. This decreases the lumen area of the artery, which in turn raises blood pressure. Normal blood pressure can be maintained with a balanced diet and an exercise regimen.
Blood pressure levels may fluctuate during menopause, due to a drop in the levels of estrogen, which is a hormone that is partly responsible for maintaining blood pressure. Sometimes, hormonal imbalance can cause weight gain, which in turn can raise blood pressure. The increase may also be due to the hormonal therapy that some menopausal women experience.
If your parents have high blood pressure, you have an increased risk of developing hypertension. Look at the members of your family and relatives who suffer from high blood pressure. If there are more than one of your close relatives who have high blood pressure and are less than 60 years old, then you run a great risk.
In general, normal blood pressure levels can be maintained by having an adequate lifestyle. Around 25 million women in the US suffer from high blood pressure, and an equal number of low blood pressure. Therefore, it is important that you check your blood pressure at regular intervals.
Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is a non-invasive technique through which multiple readings of indirect arterial pressure can be automatically achieved during periods of 1 to 3 days with minimal intrusion into the patient’s daily habits [ref 2.1].
The equipment is automatic, light and silent and uses auscultatory or oscillometric methods to determine the pressure. Some equipment is coupled to an electrocardiogram in order to associate the R waves with the sounds of Korotkoff and reduce errors due to sound artifacts. There are also other equipment that can simultaneously analyze the ST segment and rhythm (Holter) as well as taking measurements of blood pressure.
Comparisons between equipment of different brands and ambulatory techniques reveal, in general, a good agreement [Ref 2.2]. The user must pay special attention to the instructions to install the equipment and, for each subject, it must be verified that there is good agreement between the values given by the equipment and those taken with a standard sphygmomanometer in the supine, sitting and standing position. The agreement between these measures within a range of 5 mm Hg at the beginning and end of the ambulatory measurement period allows a reasonable extrapolation that the measurements taken are valid.
Many devices are not accurate if the heart rhythm is not irregular, as in the case of atrial fibrillation or frequent ectopic beats. However, these situations are easy to recognize since the agreement with the measurements of a standard sphingomanometer is impossible to achieve
The acceptance of these equipment by patients is, today, excellent. In some patients with platelet dysfunction or capillary fragility, petechiae and edema may occur distally to the cuff. Dermatitis and paralysis of the ulnar nerve have been reported, although these episodes are rare.
Usually the patient should keep a record of the daily activity, including physical and mental activity, food, sleep, medication and other events that may help interpret the data about blood pressure. The validity of the data is analyzed initially by a computer and carefully reviewed by the user.