136 90 blood pressure..High blood pressure is measured when the heart contracts to empty the blood; The diastolic pressure (the lower number) is measured when the heart relaxes to allow blood to enter the heart. Blood pressure is categorized as normal, high normal, mild, moderate, severe and very severe.
136 90 blood pressure
Any blood pressure above normal should be treated with the appropriate treatments. The optimal blood pressure is less than 120/80 mm Hg (systolic / diastolic).
The normal pressure is below 130/85; Normal high is 130-139 / 85-89. A person is considered hypertensive above 140/90, although it is now recommended that a person with 135/99 should monitor blood pressure at home.
Hypertension is then divided into four stages: mild is 140-159 / 90-99; moderate is 160-179 / 100-109; severe is 180-209 / 110-119; very severe is about 210/120.
In general, the blood pressure of all people varies in the same way during a specific day. It is usually higher at work and then goes down something at home. The pressure drops to its lowest level during sleep but suddenly increases upon awakening – the highest risk period of a heart attack and stroke in people with severe high blood pressure.
What causes high blood pressure?
Essential hypertension. Hypertension is called essential, or primary, when the doctor can not identify a specific cause. This is definitely the most common type of high blood pressure, occurring in about 90% of patients. Several genetic factors that regulate important physiological processes can interact with environmental influences to produce essential high blood pressure.
Abnormalities in the angiotensin-renin system. The genes under intense study are those that affect a group of hormones known as the angiotensin-renin system, which influences all aspects of blood pressure control, including blood vessel contraction, salt and water balance and the development of cells in the heart.
Abnormalities in the sympathetic nervous system. Studies indicate that some people with essential hypertension can inherit the abnormalities of the sympathetic nervous system, which is the part of the autonomic nervous system that controls heart rate, blood pressure and the diameter of blood vessels.
In a study on mental stress, the nervous activity governed by this system increased in students whose parents had high blood pressure but not in those whose parents had normal blood pressure.
Resistance to insulin. Metabolic abnormalities that cause insulin resistance occur in half of people with hypertension. Insulin resistance occurs when insulin levels are normal to high, but the body can not use insulin to metabolize blood sugar in muscle cells and store it for energy.
Insulin resistance is a major feature in type II, or non-insulin dependent, diabetes, which is often accompanied by high blood pressure. Not all people with insulin resistance have hypertension, and not all those with high blood pressure have this problem, so even though some link probably exists, the chain of events that lead to high blood pressure remains speculative.
Leptin, a substance related to both obesity and insulin resistance, is also elevated in many people with high blood pressure. The fact that leptin also plays a role in high blood pressure is under investigation.
Low levels of nitric oxide. Low levels of nitric oxide have been observed in people with high blood pressure and may be an important factor in essential hypertension. Nitric oxide affects the smooth muscle cells that line the blood vessels, helps keep them relaxed and can also help prevent blood clotting.
Elevated levels of the amino acid Homocysteine. Abnormally high blood levels of the amino acid homocysteine are highly linked with an increased risk of coronary artery disease and stroke. A recent study has indicated that high levels can also contribute to systolic hypertension, causing the arteries to lose elasticity and become stiff.
Excessive levels occur with deficiencies of vitamins B6, B12 and folic acid (also known as folate). It seems that homocysteine is toxic to the cells that line the arteries and that it contributes to blood clotting.
Secondary hypertension Secondary hypertension has recognizable causes which are usually treatable or reversible.
Medical conditions The medical conditions that contribute to temporary hypertension are pregnancy, cirrhosis, kidney disease or Cushing’s disease. Patients with sleep apnea who suffer from breathing disorders while asleep tend to have higher blood pressure and more precarious responses to medication for high blood pressure.
Medicines. Certain medications with and without a prescription can cause temporary high blood pressure. Prescription medications include cortisone, prednisone, estrogen, and indomethacin.
Long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can cause kidney damage; These medications can also interfere with treatments for hypertension, including diuretics and beta blockers. Such medications include aspirin, ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, Rufen), indomethacin (Indocin), naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, Aleve) and many others.
Of these medications, aspirin seems to exert the least harmful effect on blood pressure. It has also been found that cold medicines containing pseudoephedrine increase blood pressure in hypertensive people, but it seems that they do not hurt people who have achieved controlled blood pressure. Oral contraceptives may increase the risk of high blood pressure, but the risk is very small (41.5 cases per 10,000 people taking birth control pills) and is higher in women who use them for more than 6 years.
Salt. Diets high in salt accelerate hypertension in all people as they get older. A little less than half of people with high blood pressure are sensitive to salt, so they are particularly vulnerable to the effects of salt on blood pressure. People who have a greater tendency to be very sensitive to salt are those who suffer from overweight, are older, African American and those who have low levels of renin – a hormone that prevents the reduction of blood pressure. High salt diets in these people can also damage the kidney and brain, even independently of high blood pressure.