abortion at 5 months، Abortion is the interruption of pregnancy less than 20 weeks gestation, whether natural or provoked. The development of the fetus stops before it has the capacity to live outside the maternal womb. In the case of intentional loss it is called induced abortion, while at the involuntary loss of pregnancy, it is called natural or spontaneous abortion .
abortion at 5 months
We will stop to explain the causes (why they may occur) and the different types of miscarriages or spontaneous abortions .
The majority of natural abortions occur in the first trimester of pregnancy. When it occurs before 10 weeks is called early abortion, between week 11 and 20, late abortion, and after 20 weeks is considered premature birth.
It is believed that one in five pregnancies ends in abortion , although in most cases the mother does not get to know. Sometimes the pregnancy is so brief that it occurs before knowing that there has been pregnancy and the loss is confused with menstruation or with a delay of it.
Fetal causes and maternal causes of abortion
It is very difficult to identify why interruption of pregnancy occurs . The causes can be multifactorial, and most of the time we do not get to know, but we will talk about the most frequent ones.
More than half of abortions are due to fetal causes , due to congenital anomalies of the fetus, often chromosomal failures in the first stages of gestation. But also due to non-chromosomal genetic anomalies, anomalies of the trophoblast (a layer of cells formed around the egg between the fifth and seventh days after fertilization) or other anomalies.
Abortion can also occur due to maternal causes , either due to uterine alterations (myomas, synechiae, cervical insufficiency, congenital anomalies, etc.), infections, endocrinopathies (thyroid pathology, progesterone deficiency, etc.), external aggressions (radiation, drug addiction). , environmental factors, traumatisms), immunological (antiphospholipid syndrome, etc), malnutrition states, systemic or infectious diseases (diabetes, nephritis, toxoplasmosis, brucellosis, syphilis, listeriosis, hepatitis B, etc.)
A threatened abortion poses the risk of a pregnancy loss.
A metrorrhagia (vaginal bleeding not from the menstrual cycle) in the first trimester of pregnancy is a threat of abortion until proven otherwise.
The pregnancy test is positive. There is light or moderate bleeding, uterine contractions, more or less painful or both symptoms at the same time.
In case of vaginal bleeding in pregnancy, you should go immediately to the doctor who will perform an ultrasound to check the vitality of the fetus, the condition of the cervix (if it is open or closed) and if it is the first ultrasound, verify the location and development of the fetus in the uterus to rule out abnormalities such as an ectopic pregnancy, a molar pregnancy, etc.
Faced with a threat of abortion, the doctor usually recommends absolute rest to try to retain the embryo, although its efficacy is not fully proven, and not to have sexual relations.
Types of abortion
According to the moment in which the miscarriage of pregnancy occurs and its characteristics, miscarriage is classified as:
Early abortion: when the cervix is half open it is a sign that the abortion is beginning.
Abortion in progress inevitable or imminent: when the cervix is open and the passage of the fetus has begun. It is either of these two cases vaginal bleeding and the pains of uterine contractions are accentuated, which indicates that the cervix is dilating.
Complete or completed abortion: when after the fetal death all the products of conception have been expelled from the uterus, there is no pain, the bleeding is scarce and the cervix has been closed again. It does not usually require any treatment.
Incomplete abortion: when the contents of the uterus are not completely expelled after fetal death. It requires medical treatment to eliminate the remains that may have remained and thus prevent bleeding or infections, which pose a real risk to the mother. An incomplete abortion could result in a septic abortion if the fetal or placental tissue remaining in the uterus is infected.
Deferred or withheld abortion: when the embryo dies but the woman does not manage to eliminate the gestational sac for several weeks or even months. It normally occurs between weeks 8 and 12, the symptoms of pregnancy gradually disappear, the uterus stops growing and the pregnancy tests become negative approximately 10 days after the fetal death. It requires treatment (curettage) to remove the contents of the uterus.
Abortion by arrested ovule: when the abortion is so early that the ovum has been fertilized but the fetal tissue defined did not reach to form. It does not need any treatment and is eliminated with menstruation, most of the time going unnoticed.
Repeat abortions or recurrent abortions are those that occur consecutively three times or more. Up to that point it is not considered that there could be any problem to conceive. In that case, it would be advisable to resort to a genetic study to rule out chromosomal alterations.
In any case, most abortions are not recurrent, so the prognosis for the next pregnancy is good. Having an abortion does not mean that this will happen again.
To be continue
This post, for being the first in the series on abortions, is a more “technical” post, but in the following we will talk about the prevention, the warning signs and the emotional aspects in the woman and in the couple that has suffered an abortion Stay tuned.