Living with pcos Let’s know it
Living with pcos..The woman’s ovaries have follicles, which are tiny, fluid-filled sacs that contain the ovules. When the egg matures, the follicle releases it so that it can move to the uterus for fertilization. In women with the syndrome, the immature follicles clump together and form large cysts or lumps. The ovules mature with the groups of follicles, but the follicles do not open to release them.
living with pcos
As a result, women with the syndrome often do not have menstrual periods or only have them from time to time. Because the eggs are not released, most women with the syndrome have difficulty getting pregnant. Researchers estimate that 5-10 percent of women in the United States have the syndrome.
These are some of the most common signs and symptoms of PCOS in adolescents or adult women:
Abnormal menstrual cycles
Absence of menstrual periods
Excessive or prolonged bleeding
Pain during periods
Inability to get pregnant
Facial hair (more than normal for your ethnic group)
A waist more than 35 inches in circumference or wider than hips (apple shape)
Acanthosis nigricans: darker spots on the skin in the folds of the neck, armpits, waist or groin
What causes the syndrome?
The exact cause of PCOS is unknown, but studies are trying to determine if it is caused by genetic factors.
In addition, since many women with PCOS also have diabetes, studies are trying to determine if there is a relationship between the syndrome and the body’s ability to produce insulin. There is much evidence that a high level of insulin contributes to increased androgen production, which worsens the symptoms of PCOS.
In addition, the medicine Valproate, (used to treat seizures) can cause or worsen the symptoms of PCOS.
How is the syndrome diagnosed?
The diagnosis of polycystic ovarian syndrome requires several steps.
Your doctor will take a detailed medical history about your menstrual cycle and reproductive history, which includes information about the contraceptives you have used and pregnancies you have had.
He will also do a pelvic and physical exam. During the pelvic exam, your doctor will look for swelling of cysts in the ovaries. If you find cysts, you may have a vaginal ultrasound or scan to examine the cysts and the endometrium (the lining of the uterus).
If your doctor suspects you have polycystic ovarian syndrome, you may recommend blood tests to measure hormone levels. In some cases, women with the syndrome have a high level of hormones such as testosterone.
Your doctor will measure your insulin and glucose levels for diabetes or insulin resistance (inefficient use of insulin by the body). Many women with polycystic ovarian syndrome have these disorders.
Your doctor may also measure your cholesterol and triglyceride levels, since they are often abnormal in women with the syndrome. Once your doctor makes a diagnosis, they will decide together on the best way to treat and control the problem.
How does the syndrome affect fertility and pregnancy?
It is possible that polycystic ovary syndrome has a negative impact on fertility because it can prevent ovulation. Some women with the syndrome have menstrual periods but do not ovulate.
Women with PCOS can take fertility medications such as Clomid or inject them to induce ovulation. Women can also take medications to increase insulin sensitivity or steroids (to reduce the level of androgen) in order to induce ovulation. Some studies also indicate that taking a low dose of aspirin, which helps prevent coagulation in the uterine lining and improves circulation, can improve the likelihood of a pregnancy.
There seems to be a higher rate of natural abortions in women with PCOS. The reason is being studied. It is possible that a higher level of luteinizing hormone contributes to this, which contributes to the secretion of progesterone.
A high level of insulin and glucose can cause problems in the development of the embryo. Insulin resistance and delays in ovulation (more than 16 days after the beginning of the menstrual cycle) can also reduce the quality of the ovum, which can lead to natural abortion.
The best way to avoid a natural abortion in women with PCOS is to normalize hormone levels in order to improve ovulation, as well as the level of androgen and glucose in the blood. Lately, more doctors are prescribing the drug metformin to improve these levels.
Since PCOS causes a high level of blood glucose, it may be helpful for pregnant women with the syndrome to get tested for gestational diabetes sooner than is normally prescribed. Gestational diabetes occurs when a woman’s ability to process glucose is affected.
The high blood glucose level of the mother can cause the baby to be large and have immature lungs, as well as mother and child having problems during childbirth. Usually a carefully balanced diet, insulin injections, or both are used to control gestational diabetes.
Certain doctors allow pregnant women with PCOS to continue taking metformin during pregnancy, while others do not prescribe it to women who are trying to conceive. There is no evidence that it causes birth defects, but the long-term effects on the baby are unknown. Women should talk with their doctor about the risks and benefits of medications.
In general, those who take the medication are monitored more closely. After pregnancy, many women with the syndrome have normal menstrual cycles and it becomes easier for them to get pregnant again.
Do women with the syndrome have a higher risk of having other health problems?
Women with PCOS may have a higher risk of other disorders.
Irregular and non-ovular menstrual periods cause women to produce estrogen but not progesterone. Without progesterone, which causes the endometrium to be eliminated every month with the menstrual period, it is possible that it will grow too much and your cells will change. This precancerous state is called endometrial hyperplasia .
Without treatment, the endometrium that becomes thicker and thicker can become endometrial cancer. PCOS is also related to other diseases that occur after a few years, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, high cholesterol, hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis), high blood pressure and heart disease.
Depression or mood swings are also common in women with the syndrome. While more research is needed to find out about this relationship, there are many studies that establish a relationship between depression and diabetes. Therefore, with PCOS, it is possible that depression is related to insulin resistance.
It can also be a result of hormonal imbalances and cosmetic symptoms of the disorder. Acne, hair loss and other symptoms of PCOS can decrease self-esteem. Infertility and miscarriages can also be stressful. Medicines that restore the balance of hormone levels or antidepressants can help cope with these feelings.
What is the treatment for the syndrome?
Since there is no cure for PCOS, it must be controlled to prevent additional problems.
There are many medications that control the symptoms of PCOS. Doctors often prescribe birth control pills for this purpose. Birth control pills normalize menstruation, reduce androgen levels and help eliminate acne. Your doctor will tell you if contraceptive pills are appropriate for you and what type you should take.
Other medications can be beneficial with cosmetic problems. There are also medications to control high blood pressure and cholesterol. Progestins and medications can be taken to increase insulin sensitivity in order to induce a menstrual period and restore normal cycles.
A balanced diet with few carbohydrates and a healthy weight can decrease the symptoms of PCOS. Frequent exercise helps you lose weight and also helps the body to reduce the level of glucose in the blood and use insulin more efficiently.