overt diabetes and gestational diabetes : causes and treatment
overt diabetes، The symptoms of type 1 diabetes can appear quickly, in a matter of weeks. In contrast, the symptoms of type 2 diabetes usually progress very slowly, over several years, and can be so mild that sometimes they are not even noticed. Many people with type 2 diabetes have no symptoms. Some only know they have the disease when health problems related to diabetes arise, such as blurred vision or heart problems .
What are the symptoms of diabetes?
Symptoms of diabetes include:
increased thirst and the urge to urinate
numbness or tingling in the hands or feet
ulcers that do not heal
Weight loss for no apparent reason
What causes type 1 diabetes?
Type 1 diabetes occurs when the immune system, which fights infections, attacks and destroys the beta cells in the pancreas that produce insulin. Scientists think that type 1 diabetes is caused by genes and environmental factors, such as viruses, that can trigger the disease. Some studies such as TrialNet are focused on identifying the causes of type 1 diabetes and the possible ways to prevent or delay the progress or onset of the disease.
What causes type 2 diabetes?
Type 2 diabetes, the most common form of the disease, is caused by several factors, including lifestyle and genes.
Overweight, obesity and physical inactivity
A person is more likely to develop type 2 diabetes if they are not physically active and are overweight or obese. Sometimes, excess weight causes insulin resistance and is common in people with type 2 diabetes. The location of body fat is also important. Excess belly fat is linked to insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and diseases of the heart and blood vessels. To see if your weight represents a risk for the onset of type 2 diabetes
Type 2 diabetes usually starts with insulin resistance, a condition in which muscle, liver and fat cells do not use insulin properly. As a result, the body needs more insulin so that glucose can enter the cells. Initially, the pancreas produces more insulin to cover the increased demand, but over time it stops producing enough insulin and increases blood glucose levels.
Genes and family history
As with type 1 diabetes, certain genes can make a person more likely to have type 2 diabetes. The disease has a hereditary tendency and occurs more frequently in these racial or ethnic groups:
natives of Alaska
Americans of Asian origin
Hispanics or Latinos
natives of Hawaii
natives of the Pacific Islands
Genes can also increase the risk of type 2 diabetes by increasing the person’s tendency to be overweight or obese.
What causes gestational diabetes?
Certain hormones produced by the placenta They contribute to insulin resistance, which occurs in all women towards the end of pregnancy. Most pregnant women can produce enough insulin to overcome insulin resistance, but some do not. Gestational diabetes occurs when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin.
As with type 2 diabetes, excess weight is linked to gestational diabetes. Women who are overweight or obese may already have insulin resistance when they become pregnant. Excessive weight gain during pregnancy can also be a factor.
Genes and family history
Women with a family history of diabetes are more likely to develop gestational diabetes, which suggests that genes play a role. Genes may also explain why the disorder occurs most often in African-Americans, Native Americans, Asians, and Hispanics or Latinas.
What else can cause diabetes?
Some genetic mutations Other diseases, injury to the pancreas and certain medicines can also cause diabetes.
Monogenic diabetes is caused by mutations or changes in a single gene. These changes are usually transmitted between members of the family, but sometimes the genetic mutation takes place spontaneously. Most of these genetic mutations cause diabetes because they cause the pancreas to lose its ability to produce insulin. The most common types of monogenic diabetes are neonatal diabetes and juvenile adult onset diabetes (MODY). Neonatal diabetes occurs in the first 6 months of life. Doctors often diagnose juvenile adult-onset diabetes during adolescence or early adulthood, but sometimes the disease is not diagnosed until later in life.
The CF it produces an excess of thick mucus that causes scarring in the pancreas. These scars can prevent the pancreas from producing enough insulin.
Hemochromatosis causes the body to store too much iron. If the disease is not treated, iron can accumulate in the pancreas and other organs and damage them.
Some diseases cause the body to produce an excessive amount of certain hormones, which sometimes causes insulin resistance and diabetes.
The Cushing ‘s syndrome It occurs when the body produces too much cortisol, which is often referred to as the “stress hormone”.
Acromegaly occurs when the body produces too much growth hormone.
the hyperthyroidism It occurs when the thyroid gland produces too much thyroid hormone.
Injuries or removal of the pancreas
the pancreatitis , pancreatic cancer and trauma can damage beta cells or cause them to lose part of their ability to produce insulin, which leads to diabetes. If the injured pancreas is removed, diabetes develops as a result of the loss of the beta cells.
Sometimes, certain medicines can damage the beta cells or alter the functioning of insulin. These include:
niacin, a type of vitamin B3
certain types of diuretics
medicines to treat the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
pentamidine, a medicine used to treat a type of pneumonia
glucocorticoids, medicines that are used to treat inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis , asthma , lupus and ulcerative colitis
Anti-rejection medicines, which are used to prevent the body from rejecting a transplanted organ
Statins, which are medicines to reduce LDL cholesterol levels (the “bad cholesterol”), can slightly increase the likelihood of diabetes. However, statins protect against heart disease and stroke. For this reason, the great benefits of taking statins outweigh the small chance of developing diabetes.
If you take any of these medicines and are concerned about their side effects, talk to your doctor.