research on obesity and weight control indicates that …

research on obesity and weight control indicates that: Overweight and obesity are defined as an abnormal or excessive accumulation of fat that can be detrimental to health.

The body mass index (BMI) is a simple indicator of the relationship between weight and height that is frequently used to identify overweight and obesity in adults. It is calculated by dividing the weight of a person in kilos by the square of its size in meters (kg / m 2 ).

Adults
In the case of adults, WHO defines overweight and obesity as follows:

overweight: BMI equal to or greater than 25.
Obesity: BMI equal to or greater than 30.
The BMI provides the most useful measure of overweight and obesity in the population, since it is the same for both sexes and adults of all ages. However, it should be considered as an approximate value because it may not correspond to the same thickness level in different people.

In the case of children, it is necessary to take into account the age when defining overweight and obesity.

research on obesity and weight control indicates that:

Since 1975, obesity has almost tripled worldwide.

In 2016, more than 1,900 million adults aged 18 or over were overweight, of which more than 650 million were obese.

In 2016, 39% of adults aged 18 or over were overweight, and 13% were obese.

The majority of the world’s population lives in countries where overweight and obesity claim more lives than people who are underweight.

In 2016, 41 million children under the age of five were overweight or obese.

In 2016, there were more than 340 million children and adolescents (5 to 19 years old) who were overweight or obese.

overweight is the weight for height with more than two standard deviations above the median established in the WHO child growth patterns; Y
Obesity is the weight for height with more than three standard deviations above the median established in the WHO child growth patterns.
Graphs and tables: WHO growth patterns for children under 5 years old – in English
Children from 5 to 19 years old
In the case of children from 5 to 19 years old, overweight and obesity are defined as follows:

overweight is the BMI for age with more than one standard deviation above the median established in the WHO child growth patterns, and
Obesity is greater than two standard deviations above the median established in WHO child growth patterns.
Graphs and tables: WHO growth patterns for children from 5 to 19 years old – in English
Facts about overweight and obesity
Below are some recent estimates of WHO worldwide.

In 2016, more than 1,900 million adults aged 18 or over were overweight, of which more than 650 million were obese.
In 2016, 39% of adults aged 18 or older (39% of men and 40% of women) were overweight.
In general, in 2016 about 13% of the world’s adult population (11% of men and 15% of women) were obese.
Between 1975 and 2016, the worldwide prevalence of obesity has almost tripled.
In 2016, an estimated 41 million children under the age of five were overweight or obese. Although overweight and obesity were previously considered a problem in high-income countries, both disorders are currently increasing in low- and middle-income countries, particularly in urban settings. In Africa, the number of children under 5 overweight has increased by about 50% since 2000. In 2016, about half of children under five years of age who were overweight or obese lived in Asia.

In 2016, there were more than 340 million children and adolescents (5 to 19 years old) who were overweight or obese.

The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents (from 5 to 19 years old) has increased dramatically, from 4% in 1975 to over 18% in 2016. This increase has been similar in both sexes: 18% girls and 19% of children with overweight in 2016.

While in 1975 there were less than 1% of children and adolescents aged 5 to 19 years with obesity, in 2016 there were 124 million (6% of girls and 8% of boys).

Worldwide, overweight and obesity are linked to a greater number of deaths than underweight. In general, there are more obese people than underweight. This occurs in all regions, except parts of sub-Saharan Africa and Asia.

What causes overweight and obesity?

The fundamental cause of overweight and obesity is an energy imbalance between calories consumed and spent. Worldwide, the following has occurred:

an increase in the intake of high-calorie foods that are high in fat; Y
a decrease in physical activity due to the increasingly sedentary nature of many forms of work, new modes of transport and increasing urbanization.
Often changes in eating habits and physical activity are the result of environmental and social changes associated with development and the lack of support policies in sectors such as health; the Agriculture; transport; urban planning; environment; the processing, distribution and marketing of food, and education.

What are the common consequences of overweight and obesity for health?

A high BMI is an important risk factor for noncommunicable diseases, such as the following:

cardiovascular diseases (mainly heart disease and stroke), which were the leading cause of death in 2012;
diabetes;
disorders of the locomotor system (especially osteoarthritis, a very disabling degenerative joint disease), and
some cancers (endometrium, breast, ovaries, prostate, liver, gall bladder, kidneys and colon).
The risk of contracting these non-communicable diseases increases with the increase in BMI.

Childhood obesity is associated with a higher probability of obesity, premature death and disability in adulthood. However, in addition to these greater future risks, obese children suffer from respiratory difficulties, increased risk of fractures and hypertension, and present early markers of cardiovascular diseases, insulin resistance and psychological effects.

Facing a double burden of morbidity
Currently, many low and middle income countries are facing a “double burden” of morbidity.

While these countries continue to address the problems of infectious diseases and malnutrition, they also experience a rapid increase in the risk factors of noncommunicable diseases, such as obesity and overweight, especially in urban environments.
It is not uncommon to find malnutrition and obesity coexisting in the same country, the same community and the same home.
In low and middle income countries, prenatal, infant and young child nutrition is more likely to be inadequate. At the same time, children are exposed to high-calorie foods rich in fat, sugar and salt and poor in micronutrients, which usually cost less, but also have lower quality nutrients. These eating habits, together with a lower level of physical activity, lead to a drastic increase in childhood obesity, while the problems of malnutrition remain unresolved.