Voluntary muscles are controlled by the ______ nervous system…Among the systems that shape the human body (and that of all animals) there is one known as the locomotor apparatus , which is capable of giving consummation to the ability to move that exists in human beings, serving in turn protection for all the rest of the organs of the body , responsible for the vital functions.
voluntary muscles are controlled by the ______ nervous system.
The movement occurs in many ways, being voluntary or involuntary , but it is inevitable for the survival of a species to have the ability to put it into practice and, above all, to control it and be aware of the use of movement.
The locomotor apparatus is composed of various systems, among which appears the nervous system, which provides the generation and modulation of orders for mobility. Fundamentally, it is an apparatus composed of three elements:
Bones : Firm tissue, of very varied shapes but with a very complex internal structure that gives rise to the skeletal system of the body . The framework of the human body is given by the bones, which must have a great capacity to regenerate and reconstitute themselves in case of any problems.
Joints : The point of contact between two bones of the body, constituted by a union formed by a tissue that can be composed of different matter. They provide elasticity and plasticity to the body, besides being lugres of growth.
Muscles : Contractile organs of the human body, composed of a muscle tissue that can contract or expand, according to the impulses coming from the nervous system. With it movements are produced, posture is maintained and joint stability is achieved.
As said, the nervous system plays a central role in the movement of people. The neurons are the primary means through which information is transmitted in the form of electricity to different parts of the body, immediately execute the movement: people are not aware of the transmission of information, because it is thought that the two facts they happen at the same time. However, at this point a fundamental distinction can be made between movements.
What are the voluntary movements?
It happens that different parts of the brain are responsible for ordering the different voluntary movements that the body can perform : to coordinate the objective and movements, the motor cortex first receives different types of information from several lobes of the brain.
What are the involuntary movements?
The involuntary movements are those that are made without the intermediation of the brain , and thus without the explicit and clear will of the animal that performed by, although they are generally designed for the human body.
A part of the nervous system, different from the nucleus that is the central nervous system, is called autonomic nervous system and deals with this kind of actions. For them it is that the body is regulated, and it is maintained in a balance beyond the external impulses.
The autonomic nervous system is divided between the sympathetic system (which fulfills the function of mediating the response of hormonal stress, producing all involuntary movements linked to hormones ) and the parasympathetic system (responsible for the regulation of internal organs).
On the other hand, there is another class of involuntary movements constituted by the reflex acts , which are different because they are originated by the spinal cord: they are involuntary movements but made immediately to an external stimulus.
The following list shows some examples of involuntary type movements:
Withdraw the hand when we burn.
Contraction of the bronchi in the lungs.
Dilation of the pupil.
Breathe deeply before entering the water.
Move the leg when there is a blow to the patellar ligament.
Increase or decrease of the heart rate (speed of the heartbeat).
Dilation of the bronchi.
Close your eyes when sneezing.
Stimulation of the sweat glands.
Increase in saliva production during sleep.
Decreased heart rate during sleep.
Parkinson’s disease, as a condition, uses involuntary movements.
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What are the Voluntary Movements of the Human Body?
All voluntary movements (walking, writing, speaking, chewing, breathing, sleeping, crying) are possible thanks to the nervous system , an intricate network of neurotransmitters that send and receive electrical signals to or from the brain , where they are processed and transformed into action .
In the specific case of movement, it originates thanks to the contraction of the muscles and the movement of the bones and joints that accompany them.
Breathing is one of the voluntary human movements
With each movement they put into action a group of muscles that allow the movement of the body.
The voluntary movements of the body are carried out basically at the level of the outer part of the body, that is to say, those that realize the muscles that cover the skeleton, called skeletal muscles.
The rest of the internal activity of the body, such as the beating of the heart, the pumping of blood through veins and arteries, the processes of the different systems and internal organs (breathing, digesting, etc.) are not voluntary movements.
How are voluntary movements produced?
Voluntary movements are active because they are activated from the central nervous system (CNS). This system is composed of the brain, the cerebellum and the spinal cord .
In the cortex of the brain reside the nerve impulses-a tiny electric shock that lasts milliseconds and is measured in milli-volts-that travel through the nerves and spinal cord to the skeletal muscle to produce movement.
As a result of this signal, proteins such as actin and myosin are alternately activated and superimposed, producing the excitation of a certain group of muscles and the relaxation or inhibition of the opposite group, thus allowing them to change their length and effect the desired movement. .
This action is clearly visible when, for example, we try to bend an arm or a leg, or in the act of walking or going up and down a ladder.
To the extent that a muscle is stretched to achieve the flexion of the limb, its opposite has to shrink to complete the movement.
The voluntary contractions of the muscles are controlled by the brain, while reflexes and involuntary movements are controlled by the spinal cord.