when blood pressure increases, what changes can occur to maintain glomerular filtration rate?

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when blood pressure increases, what changes can occur to maintain glomerular filtration rate?، The kidneys play a key role in keeping a person’s blood pressure within healthy limits, and in turn, blood pressure can affect the health of the kidneys. High blood pressure, also called hypertension, can damage the kidneys and lead to chronic kidney failure (CKD).

when blood pressure increases, what changes can occur to maintain glomerular filtration rate?

What is high blood pressure?

Blood pressure measures the force exerted by blood against the walls of blood vessels. Excess fluid in the body increases the amount of fluid in the blood vessels, and causes blood pressure to increase. Narrow, hard or blocked blood vessels also increase blood pressure.

How does high blood pressure damage the kidneys?

High blood pressure makes the heart work harder and, over time, can damage blood vessels throughout the body. If the blood vessels in the kidneys are damaged, they may stop removing wastes and excess fluid from the body. Then, the excess fluid in the blood vessels may further increase blood pressure. It is a dangerous cycle.

Healthy kidney makes EPO so bones make red blood cells that carry oxygen. Sick kidney makes less than EPO at least red blood cells and less oxygen.
Hypertension can result from an excess of fluid in normal blood vessels or from the normal amount of fluid in narrow, hard or clogged blood vessels.
High blood pressure is one of the main causes of kidney failure, also called end-stage renal disease (ESRD). People with kidney failure should receive a kidney transplant or undergo dialysis treatments; that is, regular treatments to purify the blood. Each year, high blood pressure causes more than 25,000 new cases of kidney failure in the United States. one

What are the signs and symptoms of high blood pressure?

Most people with high blood pressure have no symptoms. The only way to know if a person’s blood pressure is high is to have a medical professional measure it with a blood pressure monitor. The result is expressed with two numbers. The first number represents the pressure when the heart is beating, called systolic pressure. The second number represents the pressure when the heart is at rest between beats, called diastolic pressure. A person’s blood pressure is considered normal if it remains at 120/80 or less, which is commonly expressed as “120 over 8”. If a person has a systolic blood pressure between 120 and 139, or a diastolic blood pressure between 80 and 89, It is considered that the person has prehypertension and therefore should adopt changes in lifestyle to lower their blood pressure and prevent heart and blood vessel diseases. If a person has a systolic blood pressure that is regularly 140 or higher, or whose diastolic pressure is 90 or higher, the person is considered to have high blood pressure and should talk to a doctor about the best ways to lower it.

What are the signs and symptoms of chronic kidney failure (CKD)?

Chronic renal failure in the early stages is a “silent” problem; that is, like high blood pressure, it does not give any signs or symptoms. It is possible that a person has CKD without knowing it, because he does not feel sick. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of a person is the measurement of how well the kidneys can filter waste from the blood. GFR is calculated with a routine measurement of the level of creatinine in the blood. The result is called the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR).

Creatinine is a waste product formed by the normal breakdown of muscle cells. Healthy kidneys remove the creatinine from the blood and pass it to the urine to eliminate it from the body. When the kidneys are not working well, creatinine builds up in the blood.

A GFR of less than 60 milliliters per minute (mL / min) suggests the presence of certain kidney damage. The score means that a person’s kidneys do not work at full capacity.

Another sign of CKD is proteinuria, or protein in the urine. Healthy kidneys remove waste from the blood but leave the proteins. The damaged kidneys may not be able to separate the waste of a protein in the blood called albumin. At first, only small amounts of albumin may pass into the urine; This condition is known as microalbuminuria, a sign of failure in kidney function. When kidney function gets worse, the amount of albumin and other proteins in the urine increases, a condition called proteinuria. There is an indication of CKD when more than 30 milligrams of albumin per gram of creatinine are excreted in the urine, with or without indication of decreased eGFR.

How can kidney damage caused by high blood pressure be prevented?

The National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI), one of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), recommends that people with CKD receive any treatment that is necessary to Keep your blood pressure below 130/80, including lifestyle changes and medications.

Can medications help control blood pressure?

Many people need to take medicines to control high blood pressure. Several effective medicines are available to treat high blood pressure. The types of blood pressure medications that doctors most commonly prescribe are diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), beta-blockers. and calcium channel blockers. Two of these medications, ACE inhibitors and ARBs, have an additional protective effect on the kidneys. Studies have shown that ACE inhibitors and ARBs reduce proteinuria and delay the progression of kidney damage. Diuretics help people urinate and remove excess fluid from the body.

How can you control your blood pressure?

The NHLBI recommends five lifestyle changes that help control blood pressure. People with prehypertension or high blood pressure should

Keep your weight at a level close to normal.
eat fresh fruits and vegetables, cereals and low-fat dairy products.

limit the daily consumption of salt (sodium) to 2,000 milligrams. They should limit the consumption of frozen meals and the consumption of foods from fast food restaurants.

They should read the nutrition information labels on packaged foods to find out how much sodium is in a serving. To control sodium intake, it may be useful to keep track of sodium consumption.

Do enough exercise, at least 30 minutes of moderate activity such as walking, biking or swimming, most days of the week.

avoid drinking too much alcohol. Men should not consume more than two drinks per day; two 12-ounce servings of beer, two 5-ounce servings of wine or two 1.5-oz servings of strong liquors. Women should not consume more than one serving per day, because differences in the way food is broken down in the body make women more sensitive to the effects of alcohol.

Who is at risk for kidney failure related to high blood pressure?

Everyone is at risk for kidney failure from high blood pressure. However, African Americans are more likely than Caucasians to suffer from high blood pressure and related kidney problems, even when their blood pressure is only a little high. In fact, African-Americans are six times more likely than Caucasians to suffer from kidney failure related to hypertension. two

People with diabetes are also at higher risk of kidney failure. Early control of high blood pressure is especially important for African Americans with diabetes.

The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), which is also part of the NIH, sponsored the Study of Renal Impairment and Hypertension in African-Americans (AASK) to find ways to effective in preventing high blood pressure and kidney failure in this population. The results, published in the November 20, 2002 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association, demonstrated that an ACE inhibitor was found to be the most effective drug to delay the evolution of renal failure in African-Americans. While ACE inhibitors help reduce the risk of kidney failure, they are less effective in lowering blood pressure in African Americans than in Caucasians.

Points to remember

Each year, high blood pressure causes more than 25,000 new cases of kidney failure in the United States.
Chronic renal failure (CKD) occurs when the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is less than 60 milliliters per minute (mL / min).
Another sign of CKD is the presence of more than 30 milligrams of albumin per gram of creatinine in a urine sample.
People with CKD should try to keep their blood pressure below 130/80.
Two groups of medicines, called angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), lower blood pressure and have an additional protective effect on the kidneys.
African Americans are six times more likely than Caucasians to suffer from kidney failure related to hypertension.
Early control of high blood pressure is especially important for African Americans with diabetes.

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