where in the body is blood pressure the highest


where in the body is blood pressure the highest :

Near the heart the blood pressure is highest. It decreases towards the extremities, the farther the distance to the heart is. The blood pressure is necessary for the blood to flow constantly and sufficiently through the body to provide it with oxygen and nutrients. The blood must overcome some resistance on its long journey through narrow blood vessels. The level of blood pressure depends on the performance of the heart and the flow resistance in the arteries.

The two blood pressure values: systolic and diastolic

The blood pressure is given in two values ​​and the unit of measurement mmHg or “mm of mercury column”. The upper (systolic) value corresponds to the pressure the heart applies to pump blood into the circulation. It is determined during the measurement when opening the blood pressure cuff. The lower (diastolic) value indicative of passive vascular resistance in relaxed cardiac muscle is measured throughout the full vessel width. Blood pressure increases with age.

Normal and abnormal blood pressure

Normal blood pressure values ​​at rest are up to 140/90 mmHg. Healthy people between 20 and 30 years have a normal blood pressure of about 120/80 mmHg. When exerted, the heart begins to beat faster and harder because the body needs more oxygen. The systolic blood pressure increases. After a while, the heartbeat calms down and the blood pressure drops to a normal level. During sleep, the blood pressure drops slightly, but it is highest in the morning.

At a higher age it is normal when the systolic value increases at rest up to 140, the diastolic up to 90 mmHg. Values ​​that are permanently too low at rest (below 100/60 mmHg) are called hypotension (low blood pressure). Values ​​that are permanently above 140/90 mmHg at rest correspond to hypertension (hypertension). If the blood pressure suddenly rises sharply, there is a so-called high blood pressure crisis. This is an acute emergency .

and we can know

You may have high blood pressure, or hypertension, and still feel good. That’s because high blood pressure often does not cause signs of illness that a person can see or feel. But high blood pressure, sometimes called “the silent killer”, is very common in older people and is a very serious health problem. If high blood pressure is not controlled through changes in lifestyle and medications, it can lead to stroke, heart disease, eye problems , kidney failure and other health problems. High blood pressure can also cause breathing difficulties when a person does physical activities or light exercises .

What is blood pressure?

Blood pressure is the force that blood exerts against the arterial walls. When the doctor measures blood pressure, the result is recorded with two numbers. The first number, called systolic blood pressure, is the pressure caused when the heart contracts and pushes the blood out. The second number, called diastolic blood pressure, is the pressure that occurs when the heart relaxes and fills with blood. The result of blood pressure measurement is usually expressed by placing the number of the systolic blood pressure on the number of the diastolic blood pressure, for example, 138/72. Normal blood pressure for adults is defined as a systolic pressure of less than 120 and a diastolic pressure of less than 80. This is indicated as 120/80.

Do I have high blood pressure?

One of the reasons to visit the doctor regularly is to have your blood pressure checked. Routine blood pressure checks will help identify an early rise in blood pressure even if you feel well. If there is an indication that blood pressure is high in two or more check-ups, the doctor may ask you to measure your blood pressure at home at different times of the day. If the pressure stays high, even when you are relaxed, the doctor may suggest exercises , changes in your diet and, most likely, medications.

What happens if only the first number of blood pressure is high?

In older people, the first (systolic) number is often 130 or higher, but the second number (diastolic) is less than 80. This problem is called isolated systolic hypertension, which is due to hardening related to the age of the patient. the main arteries. It is the most common form of high blood pressure in the elderly and can result in serious health problems (strokes, heart disease, eye problems and kidney failure) in addition to breathing difficulties when a person does light physical activities, dizziness when He stands very fast and falls. Isolated systolic hypertension is treated in the same way as current high blood pressure (130 or higher for the first number or 80 or higher for the second number), but it is possible that the treatment requires more than one type of medication to Blood pressure If the doctor determines that your systolic pressure is above the normal level for your age, ask how you can lower it.

What happens if my blood pressure is low?

If your blood pressure is less than 90/60, you suffer from low blood pressure, or hypotension. You may feel faint, weak, dizzy or even like you are going to faint. Low blood pressure can be caused by not drinking enough fluids (dehydration), blood loss, some medical disorders or too much medication.

Some of the risks associated with high blood pressure can not be changed

Anyone can develop high blood pressure. However, some people are more likely to develop it due to factors that can not change. These factors are:

  • Age. The probability of having high blood pressure increases as a person ages.
  • Gender. Before age 55, men are more likely to have high blood pressure. Women are more likely to have high blood pressure after menopause .
  • Family history High blood pressure tends to be congenital in some families.
  • Race. African-Americans have a higher risk of developing high blood pressure.

How can I control my blood pressure?

High blood pressure is very common in older people. The vascular system changes as people get older. The arteries harden, so that the blood pressure rises. This is true even for people who have habits that benefit heart health. The good news is that blood pressure can be controlled in most people.

There are many lifestyle changes you can make to reduce the risk of high blood pressure:

  • Maintain a healthy weight Being overweight increases the risk of having high blood pressure. Ask your doctor if you need to lose weight.
  • You must do exercise all the days. Moderate exercise can reduce the risk of high blood pressure. Set some goals for exercising safely and gradually achieve at least 30 minutes of exercise a day most days of the week. Check with your doctor before starting an exercise plan if you have health problems that are not being treated. You can find more information about exercise and physical activity in Go4Life .
  • Eat a healthy diet A diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains and low-fat dairy products can help lower blood pressure.
  • Reduce your salt intake. As you get older, your body and blood pressure become more sensitive to salt (sodium), so it may be necessary to determine how much salt your diet contains. Most salt comes from processed foods (for example, soups and baked goods). A low-salt diet, such as the DASH diet , can help lower blood pressure. Talk with your doctor about how to consume less salt.
  • Drink less alcohol. Drinking alcohol can affect blood pressure. Men should not drink more than two drinks a day and women only one to reduce the risk of developing high blood pressure.
  • Do not smoke. Smoking increases the risk of suffering from high blood pressure, heart disease, stroke and other health problems. If you smoke, stop doing it . It is never too late to quit smoking and the health benefits of quitting can be noticed at any age.
  • Sleep well at night. Tell your doctor if you have been told that you snore or that you sound like you stop breathing at times when you sleep. This can be a sign of a problem called sleep apnea. Getting treatment for sleep apnea and getting a good night’s sleep can help lower blood pressure.
  • Manage stress Relaxing and dealing adequately with problems can help lower blood pressure.

If these lifestyle changes do not lower your blood pressure to a safe level, your doctor will also prescribe medications. You can try several types or combinations of medications before finding a plan that works best for you. Medications can control your blood pressure, but they can not cure it. You will probably have to take medication for the rest of your life. Plan with the doctor how to manage your blood pressure.

Basic points about high blood pressure

High blood pressure is a serious condition because it can cause serious health problems. Make sure you know what your blood pressure should measure, and remember:

  • High blood pressure may not make you feel sick, but it is a serious condition. Consult a doctor to treat it.
  • You can lower your blood pressure by changing your daily habits and, if necessary, by taking medications.
  • If you take a medication for high blood pressure, making some changes in your lifestyle can help reduce the dose you need.
  • If you take a medication for high blood pressure and your blood pressure drops, it means that the medication and lifestyle changes are working. If another doctor asks if you have high blood pressure, the answer is: “Yes, but it is being treated.”
  • Tell your doctor about all the medicines you take. Do not forget to mention over-the-counter medications, vitamins and dietary supplements . These can affect blood pressure. They can also change the effectiveness of medications for blood pressure.
  • Blood pressure pills should be taken at the same time each day. For example, take your medication in the morning with breakfast or in the evening after brushing your teeth. If you forget to take a dose of the medication, do not double the dose the next day.
  • Do not take more of the blood pressure medicine than prescribed by the doctor. Do not stop taking the medication unless the doctor tells you to stop taking it. Do not skip a day or take only half a pill. Remember to refill your medication before you run out of pills. If you do not have enough money to pay for your medications, talk with your doctor or pharmacist.
  • Before having surgery, ask your doctor if you should take your blood pressure medication that day.
  • Get up slowly when you have been sitting or lying down and stand for a few moments before you start walking. This allows the blood pressure to be adjusted before starting to walk to prevent dizziness, fainting or a fall.
  • As you get older, high blood pressure, especially isolated systolic hypertension, is more common and may increase the risk of serious health problems. Treatment, especially if you have other medical conditions, requires continuous evaluation and discussions with the doctor to achieve the best balance between reducing risks and maintaining a good quality of life.

If the doctor asks you to take your blood pressure at home, keep the following in mind:

  • There are many devices available to monitor blood pressure in the home. Ask the doctor, nurse or pharmacist which monitor you need and how to use it. Take the monitor to the doctor’s office to have it checked and make sure it is working properly.
  • Avoid smoking, exercising and consuming caffeine 30 minutes before blood pressure is measured.
  • Make sure you are sitting with your feet on the ground and not crossing them, and that your back is leaning against something.
  • Relax in silence for 5 minutes before measuring your blood pressure.
  • Keep a list of the numbers obtained when measuring blood pressure, the time blood pressure was measured, and when the blood pressure medicine was taken (if you take medicine). Share this information with the doctor, physician assistant or nurse.
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