Which of the following is the most rapidly acting medication administration route?Let’s know it
Which of the following is the most rapidly acting medication administration route?..The medication is administered by mouth. It is the most common route, since it is a convenient and simple way to take medication.
which of the following is the most rapidly acting medication administration route?
It is also safe (in case of overdose a gastric lavage or induce vomiting can be performed). As disadvantages we will emphasize that the absorption is not fast (the small intestine is the most important absorption zone), that part of the drug may undergo biotransformation processes in the digestive system by the action of gastric juices or by hepatic inactivation and the possible irritation of the gastric mucosa.
The pharmaceutical forms that are taken orally are tablets, capsules, dragees, syrups, solutions, suspensions and granules. Tablets are the most commonly used pharmaceutical form.
CAN I START THE COMPRESSES? :
In principle tablets should be swallowed whole, but it can be done in cases where it is not done to divide the dose (unless the tablet is slotted), but to facilitate administration. Enteric coated or delayed-release tablets should never be split. This would cause the active ingredient not to be absorbed correctly or inactivated.
CAN I OPEN THE CAPSULES? :
The capsules are also designed to swallow them whole, but unless they are enteric or there is information in the leaflet that discourages it, it can be done.
HOW DO I PREPARE AN “EXTEMPORARY SUSPENSION”? :
Water must be added to the brand that has the container, but never at one time. We will start adding a little water and shake. Then we finish with water until the mark of fading.
WHAT IS AN EFFERVESCENT COMPRESSION? :
Effervescent tablets are formulated with an acid (tartaric, citric …) and an alkali (sodium bicarbonate …) that react to dissolve in the water generating carbon dioxide that forms small bubbles that break the tablet and help the dissolution of the active ingredient or keep it in suspension.
The tablet is placed under the tongue, a zone of rapid absorption, and it is left to dissolve. This prevents the action of gastric juices and hepatic inactivation. It does not swallow. It is not necessary to drink liquids. It is an emergency route in some cases (ex: nitroglycerin).
The medication is applied directly to the area to be treated, since a local action is usually sought. The intention is to access the dermis (the skin is divided into epidermis, dermis and hypodermis), something very influenced by the state of the skin. Thus, absorption is lower in old age and higher in childhood. The most common pharmaceutical forms for topical application are powders, solutions, creams, lotions, gels, ointments and ointments.
IS THE SAME A CREAM THAT A POMADA? :
No. Creams are emulsions. Emulsions are homogeneous mixtures of immiscible liquids, such as water and oil. Normally the creams have two phases, one aqueous and one oily, while the ointments lack the aqueous phase, so there can be no emulsion. The ointments and ointments are made up of fats.
It is the route used by transdermal patches to administer drugs that can pass through the skin.
The drugs are applied directly to the eye. A local action is sought. The bioavailability is low, but this route allows reaching high active substance concentrations. There is absorption at the level of the cornea. It is very important that the container does not touch the eye during the application of the drug to avoid contamination. They can be solutions (eye drops) or ointments.
The otic pathway is limited to the topical application of drugs in the outer ear. Only allows a local action. The pharmaceutical form used in this case are the ear drops. Also, but less frequent, semi-solid forms.
The medicine acts on the nasal mucosa. It is usually applied in the form of ointment or solutions (drops and nebulizers).
The absorption of the active principle takes place through the mucosa. The effects are local or systemic (general). The medication is administered by nebulizers (they transform the liquids into a cold vapor) or inhalers.The inhalers allow the use of powder or liquid.The pressurized metered dose inhalers supply a dose with each pulsation.
The medication is administered through the anus. Rectal absorption is good because it is a highly vascularized area in hemorrhoidal veins. In addition, the passage through the liver of the blood that carries the drug from the rectal mucosa is avoided (we avoid the so-called “first-pass effect”). Suppositories and enemas are used.
The medication is introduced into the vagina and absorption takes place through the lipoid membrane. Normally, local effects are sought. In this way, ointments, tablets and vaginal ovules are used. Contraceptives in the form of a vaginal ring are also common. Almost always accompanied by an applicator, so it is very important to read the leaflet to know how to use it correctly.
The medicine is given by injection. The most important routes of parenteral administration are intravenous, intramuscular and subcutaneous, but there are others less used such as intraarticular, intracardiac, intraarterial, intrathecal, epidural, etc. The parenteral route is a route of urgency. The answer is very fast.
INTRAVENOUS ROUTE : The medication is injected directly into a vein. Superficial or cutaneous veins are used to inject only liquids.
The distribution is very fast when the drug reaches the blood directly. This makes it very difficult to stop its effects, whether they are adverse or not. That is why this route of administration is not preferred, but it is undoubtedly the fastest. Large volumes of medication can be administered.
INTRAMUSCULAR ROUTE : The medication is injected into a muscle (arm, thigh, buttock …). The muscle tissue is very vascularized, so the injected fluid diffuses between the muscle fibers and is absorbed quickly. The volume injected in this way is small. Normally no more than 5 ml.
SUBCUTANEOUS ROUTE : The medicine is injected under the skin. Normally in the abdomen. It is not a very vascularized area, so absorption is slow.
Small amounts of medication (around 2 ml) can be injected as a suspension or solution. It is the usual way for the patient to administer anticoagulants after surgery (bemiparin sodium or enoxaparin sodium). Pellets or sustained-release tablets may also be administered. When using this route of administration, a slow, lasting and sustained absorption is sought.